There is a lot of talk about Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and there is an expectation that every website will be searchable by Google right away. I have heard SEO described as mysterious or voodoo-like. The simple truth is that before an SEO project can start, your web site has to be developed in a manner that is Search Engine Friendly (ready for SEO). There is no mystery or voodoo involved - as a matter of fact, Google tells you exactly what is needed for a Search Engine Friendly site and it is a good standard coding practice.
From Google's Search Engine Optimization Starter Guide, here are the six most important items that are required for your website to be built as Search Engine Friendly: